Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) aims to protect motor neurons from damage in people with ALS by reducing inflammation. G-CSF may also help create new nerve cells by mobilizing stem cells from the bone marrow to the CNS. Marketed under the name Neupogen, GC-SF is currently used to boost white blood cell counts in bone marrow transplant recipients or people who underwent chemotherapy.
Neuralstem may help keep motor neurons healthy in people with ALS by boosting production of neuroprotective substances that promote their survival and growth. Neuralstem is injected directly into the spinal cord via a surgical procedue. A fetal-derived neural stem cell-based treatment strategy, Neuralstem likely requires anti-rejection medicines.
The misfolding of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) in motor neurons may contribute to ALS. A human-derived monoclonal antibody directed to misfolded SOD1, Neurimmune’s NI-204 aims to reduce the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 within motor neurons in people with ALS and thereby slow the progression of the disease.
The diaphragm pacer aims to boost the stamina of the weakening breathing muscles in people with ALS by electrically conditioning them. FDA-approved for humanitarian use in the US in 2011, the NeuRx DPS is currently recommended for people with chronic hyperventilation.
NP001 may lower the levels of activated cytotoxic macrophages in people with ALS, reducing inflammation and further injury to the motor nerves.
Nuedexta may help people with ALS speak and swallow by stimulating sigma-1-receptors that decorate motor neurons in the brainstem. Nuedexta is currently prescribed to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA).
NurOwn may help keep motor neurons healthy in people with ALS by boosting production of GDNF, a neuroprotective substance which promotes their survival and growth. In this potential treatment strategy, adult stem cells from the patient's own bone marrow are reprogrammed into GDNF-secreting astrocyte-like cells and reintroduced. NurOwn can likely be administered without anti-rejection medicines.
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